Curriculum: Agriculture: Exploring Aquaculture [§
Texas Legacy site hosts a variety of educational curricula, lesson
plans, keys and ideas, and supporting media, including video,
databases, transcripts and other material. Below you can find
the TEKS Agriculture standards for Exploring Aquaculture,
as described in section
119.23(c)(2), with relevant
activities drawn from this archive.
determines the biological principles, growth habits, anatomy, and
morphology of aquaculture plants and animals:
Excerpts of TEKS Text
(A) identify the types and nature of aquaculture production;
TexasLegacy.org archive includes narrators from aquaculture,
icthyology research, sportfishing, coastal advocacy, commercial
shrimping and Gulf fishing, each of whom brings experience but a
different perspective about aquaculture.
Watch the video of
Clarence Ogle, as he shows how he manages his tilapia
operation. While his operation is on a relatively small
scale, and restricted to this freshwater finfish, its basic
principles apply to much larger scale aquaculture facilities
raising catfish, shrimp, salmon, cod and other fresh and
(B) know the current status and potential of aquaculture at
local, state, national, and international levels; and
Aquaculture is a new industry that has faced growing pains from
problems with disease, exotic species escape, and swamping of
fish market prices due to glut. TexasLegacy.org
participants can give students a closer look at the industry's
development and current status.
her transcript, Seadrift shrimper
Diane Wilson explains that 90% of the shrimp eaten in
the U.S. is farm-raised, much of it abroad, and this market
trend is decimating the American shrimping industry, which is
getting paid roughly what it was 40 years ago, despite the
intervening inflation in all their expenses. She also
points out that the farms consume a great deal of fresh water,
while releasing viruses in their tailings.
The Flower Bluff marine biologist,
Henry Hildebrand gives more detail about the viruses
involved, focusing most of his concern on the history of viral
damage (which wiped out the shrimp farming industry in China),
and the White Spot virus' ability to leap from species to
species, residing in and infecting native shrimp and crabs.
Port Mansfield sportfishing guide
Walt Kittelberger echoes Ms Wilson's and Dr.
Hildebrand's concerns about the wastewater discharges, and adds
that a number of the farms have contaminated the underlying
soil, and then been abandoned.
(C) discuss the origins of productive aquaculture.
TexasLegacy.org narrators can help us understand why aquaculture
started, and grew, through examining the pressures on
better understand the origins of aquaculture it is important to
see the problems that have long affected, or perhaps newly
One issue for fishermen is the sheer danger of the
industry. In 2005, fishing was ranked as the most
hazardous occupation in the U.S. This excerpt from our
interview with red snapper fisherman,
Felix Cox, tells about the day he had to abandon his
fishing boat in stormy waters.
Another problem for fishing is that of bycatch, the
unwanted, and discarded, fish that are caught on lines or in
seines. Bycatch damages equipment, costs extra fuel to
haul, and can harm non-target species. Sometimes these
non-target species are rare or endangered, such as the Kemp's
Ridley Sea Turtles that can be caught in shrimp nets (please
watch Laguna Vista shrimper
Deyaun Boudreaux explain their precautions).
third problem for commercial fishermen is the competition with
other fishermen. There has been rivalry with
sportfishermen, who at times have the extra income and
political connections to outmaneuver the weekday fishermen in
getting access to a scarce resource. A visit with Port
Mansfield sport fishing guide,
Walt Kittelberger may help one understand that
sport culture. Also, according to marine biologist
Henry Hildebrand, the Anglo-American shrimpers have also
seen competition from Vietnamese shrimpers, at the same time as
the number of outstanding licenses was declining, and the
neighboring fisheries in Mexico had closed.
final, but major, issue pressing the development of aquaculture
is the decline of wild fisheries. The collapse,
largely unnoticed, of some endemic spring fish described here by
Clark Hubbs is an example of the slide of major